Childbirth or Parturition is giving birth to a baby at the end of pregnancy leaving the uterus behind where nourishment of baby is done during 37 weeks of gestation. Delivery can be of two types:-Vaginal delivery or surgical method also known as Caesarean section. Vaginal deliveries are common in most of the pregnancy cases. Caesarean sections are recommended in case of twins or breech babies where babies are born with feet first or if there are some complications related to child birth.

Signs that detect labour arrival are uterine contractions increases and become together, fluid or blood leakage from vagina, slight backache and more vigorous abdominal cramps. It is said that delivering a child is highly painful and hence doctors prescribe many methods for pain reduction including techniques for relaxation, strong analgesics or opioids and the spinal anaesthetic blocks.

Childbirth complications may be maternal or foetus related. They may be preterm or post term. Preterm delivery is delivering a baby before 37 weeks of gestation leads to complications like new-born with respiratory disorders or Jaundice or Hypoglycaemia. One of the less common ones is En-caul birth baby, a baby which is born completely inside the transparent fluid filled amniotic sac. This type of birth is protective for babies from the mechanical injury by vigorous contractions. Caesarean sections are advised for these fragile babies. C-sections for these babies are different from normal C- sections as incision is placed at different position. It also reduces chances of asphyxia.

There might be labour complications including breech births or improper uterine contractions of failure of descent of foetus or active phase arrest or obstructed labour. One of the post-term complications is a caul birth baby, in which a baby’s head and face is covered with a membrane. It is not complication for a child but for a mother who is frightened to see this being totally unaware of the fact that it is harmless yet gives a strange unlikely appearance to the child. It is uncommon and happens one in eighty thousand birth cases. It can be easily removed by physicians.

Two types of caul are found namely amniotic caul and non-amniotic caul. Amniotic caul is easily removed from child’s skin, it is believed to be a lucky charm in ancient times and baby was referred as “born in a shirt” or “born with helmet”. Whereas, non-Amniotic caul is difficult to remove as it surrounds infant body and adheres to it and loops behind baby’s ear. Removal of non-Amniotic caul includes incising it from above baby’s nostrils. Other maternal complications include vaginal birth injury or pelvic girdle pain or infection in body and heavy blood loss or haemorrhage leading to hypovolemic shock.

Childbirth is intricate cycle and each stage is sensitive and important for a mother and the child. One needs to be understand the various aspects and take help of medication along with latest technology with proper guidance to ensure a comfortable pregnancy period and child birth followed by proper care of both child and mother.

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